Tolima is a department in Colombia where music is its distinctive expression… until now. In recent times, nature tourism has drawn the attention as a new attraction.
Birdwatching and nature tourism are new there, and emerged after the signing of the peace process. With it, people began to see bird watching and nature tourism as an economic opportunity.
Where is Tolima?
Tolima is located in the center-west of Colombia, in the Andean region. Its capital city is Ibagué, and it locates on the eastern flank of the Central Andes, in the center of the department. It is known as the Musical Capital of Colombia.
So, if you are in the coffee region, or in Bogota or Cali, it will be very easy for you to visit this region by car, or by plane.
Perales National Airport is located in the east of the city of Ibagué and is the main airport in Tolima. It is in the process of becoming an international airport.
Rare food alert: One of the most famous meals in Colombia is the lechona. The lechona borned in Tolima. This is a dish based on pork meat, stuffed with peas and rice, and mixed inside the pork itself.
It is baked in the oven, leaving the pork skin browned and toasted. It is served with a portion of the skin, in a Bijao leaf, previously passed through the fire, as a plate. This leaf is similar to the banana leaf, but it is not edible.
What does it mean Tolima?
The are several stories about the name Tolima. One of them tells that the word comes from the Panche term tolima, tulima or dulima, which means river of snow or cloud.
Another story refers to an indigenous woman called Tulima, or Yulima. Yulima was an indigenous queen and priestess who protected a religious sanctuary. This place was very rich in gold deposits, near Machín Volcano and Nevado del Tolima.
The Spaniards assaulted her and took her as a prisoner. They led her in chains to Ibagué, in whose main square the conquerors burned her alive.
While she was dying she received blessings from Father Cobos to help her soul elevates to heaven. The department preserved her legendary name as a perennial tribute to her martyrdom.
Tolima as a Nature Destination
Tolima covers an area of 149,800 hectares. It extends from the upper Magdalena valley in the east to the Tolima snow-capped mountain in the northwest.
Thus, the department of Tolima has a huge variety of ecosystems and life zones. There you will find tropical dry forests at 2800 meters above sea level, to the paramo life zone, at approximately 5280 meters above sea level.
This broad altitudinal variation arises into a great variety of climates and topographic aspects. This variation, in turn, results in a high number of habitats for a wide diversity of species, birds among them.
Additionally, the mountainous landscapes of Tolima makes it a very good region to visit for hiking.
Also, the Magdalena River, the most important river of Colombia, crosses Tolima from south to north enriching the landscape. The city of Honda was one of its main ports in the colonial past (watch the video below).
The natural wealth of Tolima has allowed the development of several important tourist activities. Furthermore, several national natural parks belong to the department of Tolima and are reserves of water, flora and fauna: Los Nevados National Natural Park, Las Hermosas National Natural Park, and Nevado del Huila National Natural Park.
There are several aquatic parks in the lowland areas of Tolima you can visit with your family. Also, you can do rafting on the Sumapaz river in Melgar, Carmen de Apicalá, Coello, Flandes and Suárez.
In the north, at Mariquita, Honda, Ambalema and Falan towns, you can combine historical colonial tourism with water parks.
Sport Fishing and Water Sports
To the south is the Prado reservoir focused on sport fishing and water sports. This region also has a lot of indigenous history. There you will find Amerindian expressions in ceramics made by the Pijao communities.
The area also has incredible landscapes such as the Pacandé Mountain and the northern side of the Tatacoa Desert.
Hiking and Trekking
In the center of the department, Ibagué, Murillo and Líbano towns are close to Los Nevados National Park. There, mountaineering is the main attraction.
Check our tour to Nevado del Tolima here.
Birdwatching in Tolima
More and more people is discovering the biodiversity of birdlife in Tolima. Today, Tolima is 14 in the eBird’ species list of departments of Colombia, with 809 bird species reported.
Besides this, it is 8th in the Top 10 departments with more checklists, with around 14300.
In Tolima, a Bird Festival is also held every year. The most recent version was in 2019, being the fifth one. This festival features cultural and academic activities, as well as bird watching tours.
Tolima Birdwatching Routes
Private and public entities work together to protect and conserve the birds biodiversity of Tolima. Thus, since 2018, the Chamber of Commerce, the Ornithological Association Anthocephala, and Cortolima developed a total of 33 birdwatching routes in Tolima.
13 of these birding routes are near to Ibagué and the Río Viejo wetland in San Luis.
The main routes established in Tolima include:
- Toche Canyon,
- Combeima Canyon,
- The northern route (Honda, Mariquita, Fresno and Falán),
- Las Hermosas in Chaparral,
- San Antonio,
- Galilea forest,
- Murillo – Armero route,
- Falán – Mariquita,
- Clarita Botero en Ibagué
- “Raúl Echeverry” Botanical Garden in Líbano, and
- San Jorge Botanical Garden, among others.
One of the most important routes that you should not miss is the Toche Canyon Route. The Toche Canyon locates between the cities of Cajamarca and Ibagué.
There there are ten species of parrots, among them the Indigo-winged Parrot, the Yellow-eared Parrot and the Golden-plumed Parakeet. These species live in the ecosystem offered by the most conserved forest of wax palm in the country.
Top Birds of Tolima
Here’s a taste of what’s to come in a future post. The most representative bird species in Tolima are:
- Tolima Blossomcrown – Anthocephala berlepschi
- Tolima Dove – Leptotila conoveri
- Indigo-winged Parrot – Hapalopsittaca fuertesi
- Yellow-eared Parrot – Ognorhynchus icterotis
- Velvet-fronted Euphonia – Euphonia concinna
- Crested Ant-Tanager – Habia cristata
- Yellow-headed Brushfinch – Atlapetes flaviceps
- Rufous-fronted Parakeet – Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons
- Indigo-capped Hummingbird – Amazilia cyanifrons
- Apical Flycatcher – Myiarchus apicalis
- Brown-banded Antpitta – Grallaria milleri
- Buffy Helmetcrest – Oxypogon stuebelii
Find the Tolima birding routes and highlights in our entry Tolima Birding Routes: from the Andean Snows to the Magdalena Valley.
So, don’t miss the opportunity to visit Tolima! In future posts we will tell you how we did during our visit.
For more information about birding trips to Colombia and the birds of Colombia, visit our entry The Complete Colombia Birdwatching Guide: Tourism & Conservation.
If you want to know more about the most incredible natural destinations in Colombia, plan your trip with us!
- Tolima Regional Autonomous Corporation – cortolima.gov.co
- Anthocephala, Ornithology Association of Tolima.
About the author
Current director of Sula. Doctor in Biological Sciences. Her main interests are to explore and understand the organism – environment interactions, taking advantage of emerging knowledge for the management and conservation of species and ecosystem services. She is currently working as a consultant in functional ecology, ecosystem services and conservation projects in Colombia related to ecotourism and birdwatching.