Colombia is a megadiverse country. It is also a country with a difficult history. War has been around for more than 60 years. With the signing of the peace agreement in 2016, Colombia opened up as never before, presenting a rich, unexplored and under-exploited territory. It also was the starting of the post-conflict struggle.
Paradoxically, the conservation of natural habitats in Colombia was facilitated by the war conflict, preventing territories from being invaded by development and deforestation.
Colombia’s Post-conflict Scenarium
Tourism has been one of the sectors that have benefited the most from the peace agreement, especially nature tourism.
One of the economic benefits of the peace agreement in Colombia has been that local communities have an alternative business opportunity in bird watching tourism.
The most remarkable result was the bird-watching expansion to areas, that were formerly unsafe, such as Caquetá and Putumayo.
However, not everything has been rosy. This time of transition has cost us, especially due to the lack of proper administration and governance in the territories that were liberated from the conflict.
The Environmental Cost of the Post-conflict
Many studies on post-conflict dynamics have concluded that the social, political, and administrative imbalance that remains in the new peace territories leads to environmental degradation, especially through increased deforestation.
Unfortunately, it has been recognized that the main threat to Colombian birds is the loss of habitat caused by deforestation. Deforestation occurs when people begin to use the resources to which they did not have access before.
Carrying Capacity Excedeed
Another aspect is the deterioration of the new sites due to uncontrolled visitation by tourists and visitors, which exceeds the carrying capacity limits of many of these sites.
An example of this is the Chiribiquete National Natural Park, which had to be closed to visitors due to vandalism and overcrowding. In addition, the park has also been threatened by deforestation.
Likewise, demobilization has not been complete, and there are still some illegal groups that continue with their own agenda.
Finally, it is unfortunate to have to mention that the murder of environmental leaders has also seriously affected the country.
The Boom of Scientific Expeditions
In Colombia, the peace process also allowed scientific explorations to expand in the territory, as it was possible to visit places previously closed due to public safety issues.
Colombia Bio Expeditions
After the signing of the peace treaty, the Colombia Bio project, promoted by Colciencias, was launched in the country.
Colombia BIO aimed to carry out 20 expeditions in the period between 2016 and 2018 in order to generate knowledge about biodiversity. The expditions were possible thanks to the end of the conflict.
The expeditions were conducted in continental and marine areas that were:
- Unexplored areas,
- In post-conflict territories,
- Under threat, or
- Associated with transformed landscapes.
Many of the explored areas shared several of those characteristics. The Colombia Bio expeditions discovered countless new species of fauna and flora in the country.
Thanks to this, and to the great impulse that the Colombian government gave to birdwatching tourism, Colombian ornithologists, as well as bird lovers, now have more and better information about the birds of the most bird-rich country in the world.
2021: 5 Years After the Signing of the Peace Agreement
In 2021 it will be five years since the signing of the peace agreement. Since then, the country has been preparing to become a world-class bird-watching destination.
Today we have improvements such as:
- Increased supply of comfortable accommodation, from ecolodges, glamping, birdlodges, sustainable hotels, etc. Find more information in our entries Complete Guide to the Best Eco lodges in Colombia and Ultimate Guide to the Best Birding Lodges in Colombia.
- Some improved main roads, such as the La Linea tunnel.
- More offers related to reliable transportation, and
- A better understanding of attention to the peculiar needs of birders (early breakfast, comfort, silence, etc.).
Additionally, today we have a big advance in terms of policy for tourism and nature tourism training.
First Sustainability Policy for Tourism in Colombia
The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism launched the first sustainability policy for tourism in Colombia in December 2020. It is called the Sustainable tourism policy “United for Nature”.
This sustainability policy aims to position sustainability as a fundamental pillar for the development of tourism in Colombia through a strategic plan for 2030 called the Roadmap for Sustainable Tourism.
This plan is composed of six strategies, 14 programs, 32 projects and 140 policy actions.
The objectives of the plan focus on the following guidelines:
- Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
- Efficient energy management and investment in renewable and non-conventional energy sources.
- Responsible management of solid waste.
- Saving and efficient use of water.
- Adequate wastewater treatment.
- Protection of the country’s biodiversity and ecosystems.
First Guide for Nature Tourism in Colombia
They also launched the first guide for nature tourism in Colombia together with ProColombia, and the support of USAID’s Natural Wealth Program; the Humboldt Institute; and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS).
The guide is called “Contemplation Comprehension, Conservation: An Illustrated Handbook for Nature Tourism Guides in Colombia”.
It will be a tool for the country to take advantage of its potential as an international destination with sustainable and responsible practices.
You can take a look to the Handbook in the website https://guianaturaleza.colombia.travel/en/
The Colombian Birding Trails
At the same time, Since 2015, Audubon, in collaboration with Asociación Calidris, has been working on bird-based ecotourism initiatives in Colombia to support local development and conservation.
Audubon has been training many people as specialized bird tour informers in all regions of Colombia, and developing the following birding routes:
- The Northern Colombia Birding Trail
- The Central Andes and Coffee Region Birding Trail
- The Eastern Andes Birding Trail
- Colombia’s Southwestern Andes Birding Trail
However, bilingual and bird-focused guides, as well as specialized birding infrastructure, such as canopy towers or canopy trails, platforms, hides, etc., are still underdeveloped.
Therefore, if you come to Colombia to watch birds, especially on your own, you will have the best guides in local people, as they have a first-hand experience with the local landscape and wildlife, but with low or basic training in bird identification and foreign language skills (i.e. English).
How We are Helping
In Sula we always work with the local community. Whether it is with the accompaniment of a local guide, with local transportation services, with lodging in hotels and lodges developed by local people, among others.
We have first-hand knowledge of all our allies, and also help people in their regions to develop and/or improve their products and services.
Organize your trip with us, so that you have the best services, and at the same time help the economic development of the regions you visit.
- Renjifo LM, Amaya-Villarreal AM, Butchart SHM (2020) Tracking extinction risk trends and patterns in a mega-diverse country: A Red List Index for birds in Colombia. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0227381. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227381
- Maldonado JH, Moreno-Sánchez R, Espinoza S, Bruner A, Garzón N, Myers J. Peace is much more than doves: The economic benefits of bird-based tourism as a result of the peace treaty in Colombia. World Development. 2018; 106: 78–86.
- Ocampo-Peñuela N, Winton RS. Ocampo. Economic and conservation potential of bird-watching tourism in post-conflict Colombia. Trop Conserv Sci. 2017; 10: 1–6.
- Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism
- Building birding trails in Colombia – before loggers can get there. BirdLife International.
- Deforestation surged following end of armed conflict in Colombia. UCLA
- MAAP (Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project)
About the author
Current director of Sula. Doctor in Biological Sciences. Her main interests are to explore and understand the organism – environment interactions, taking advantage of emerging knowledge for the management and conservation of species and ecosystem services. She is currently working as a consultant in functional ecology, ecosystem services and conservation projects in Colombia related to ecotourism and birdwatching.